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    APEC不談南海是共識 美國攪局不會得逞

    文章來源: 管理員

    2015-11-19 23:41

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    亞太經合組織領導人非正式會議召開在即,菲律賓總統阿基諾承諾,要做完美東道主,給予中國最熱情友好的接待。APEC的主要目標是促進亞太地區的自由貿易和可持續增長以及繁榮。菲律賓期望作為世界第二大經濟體的中國領導人出席,努力營造良好氛圍也在情理之中。更重要的是,APEC是經濟論壇,南海問題是政治議題,當然不應該出現在今年APEC會議的議程中。

    然而,美國似乎心有不甘。

    南海作為連通太平洋和印度洋的戰略樞紐,是世界上第二大海上航道。世界貿易的80%依靠海運,三分之一的全球貿易和一半以上的大型油輪及貨輪都取道南海,每年來往的大小船舶總計在4 萬艘以上。經馬六甲海峽進入南海的油輪是經過蘇伊士運河的3倍、巴拿馬運河的5倍,經過南海運輸的液化天然氣是全世界液化天然氣總貿易量的三分之二。

    南海就在中國的家門口,是中國對外經濟往來的重要通道。沒有哪個國家比中國更希望、更重視、更需要南海的和平、安全和穩定。這條能源供應線上的航運安全和自由對中國、美國、日本、韓國,以及東南亞各國至關重要。維護南海航行自由不僅符合南海各國和域外國家的共同利益,也是包括中國在內的南海各國的鄭重承諾。

    中國在1992年頒布了領海及毗連區法 Law of the PRC on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone),在1998年頒布了專屬經濟區和大陸架法Law of the PRC on the Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf);中國在1996年批準了《聯合國海洋法公約》(United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)并宣布了中國大陸和西沙群島(Xisha Islands)的領?;€(baseline)。雖然還沒有公布南沙群島(Nansha Islands)的領?;€,但這并不影響中國在南海的相關權利,包括南沙群島擁有領海、專屬經濟區和大陸架的權利。

    日前,美國打著航行自由的旗號,不顧中方的一再勸誡,執意派軍艦非法進入中國南沙群島有關島礁的鄰近海域,是違反國際法的蓄意挑釁。

    美國所謂的航行自由,其實是在刻意回避國際法上的航行制度,是一種很不專業的托詞。航行自由不是無所顧忌、恣意妄為,想怎樣航就怎樣航,它涉及海洋法上的航行制度,包括領海的無害通過 (innocent passage)、海峽過境通行(transit passage)和群島海道通過(archipelagic sea lanes passage)。在專屬經濟區的航行應適當顧及 (due regard) 沿海國的權利和義務,并應遵守沿海國的法律和規章。在公海上的航行自由,也須適當顧及其他國家行使公海自由的利益。

    無論是領海的無害通過、用于國際航行海峽 (straits used for international navigation) 的過境通行、群島水域(archipelagic waters)的群島海道通過,以及專屬經濟區和公海的航行自由,都不是漫無邊際率性而為,而是受到相應國際法規制和限制的。

    美國一意孤行的任性之舉,嚴重威脅中國的主權和安全,危及島礁人員和設施的安全,違反了《聯合國憲章》和國際法。是以航行自由之名,行炫耀武力之實。

    聯系美國近期在南海的一系列非常之舉,航行自由怕是要被美國玩壞了。面對無事生非的挑釁,中國不會在涉及領土主權、安全和海洋權益的問題上向美讓步。美國要挾東盟國家、共同挑戰中國,搞亂南海的圖謀注定不會得逞。(國家海洋局海洋發展戰略研究所副所長賈宇)

    資料來源:http://world.chinadaily.com.cn/2015-11/17/content_22475732.htm

    US ploy in South China Sea bound to fail

    By Jia Yu (China Daily) Updated: 2015-11-17 10:54

    President Xi Jinping’s visit to the Philippines for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting from Nov 17 to 19 has quelled speculations that the maritime disputes with the host nation could make him decide otherwise.

    Last week Philippines President Benigno Aquino III assured visiting Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi that the APEC meeting would focus on Asia-Pacific regional economic cooperation without raising the disputes in the South China Sea, as most members including China had agreed. But the US State Department has hinted that the South China Sea issue could be raised during the meeting despite Manila’s efforts to prevent the agenda from deviating from free trade and sustainable growth in and common prosperity of the Asia-Pacific region.

    As the world’s second-largest sea-lane that connects the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean, the South China Sea is of great strategic importance to all countries in the region, as well as the US and European countries.

    Nearly 80 percent of global trade depends upon maritime transportation, and about one-third of it is carried out through the South China Sea, which sees the passage of at least 40,000 ships a year. The number of oil tankers that sail through the Strait of Malacca, a critical passage through regional waters, is almost three times that of the Suez Canal and five times of the Panama Canal. Two-thirds of the global trade in liquefied natural gas is also conducted through the waterway.

    China has more stakes that any other country in safeguarding peace and stability in the South China Sea, because it is a major channel of its global economic network. So ensuring smooth transportation (of energy sources) and navigation through the South China Sea is not only conducive to the shared interests of all Asia-Pacific economies - such as China, the US, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations - but also economies elsewhere.

    China promulgated the Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone in 1992, and the Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf seven years later. It ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1996 and publicized the territorial baseline of its mainland and Xisha Islands.

    True, it is yet to disclose the territorial baseline of its Nansha Islands, but that does not nullify its legal rights in the surrounding waters, including territorial sea, exclusive economic zones and continental shelf. This makes the entry of US guided-missile destroyer USS Lassen into the waters near China’s islands in the South China Sea last month a violation of international law.

    The US’ attempt to justify its action on the pretext of “freedom of navigation” is a rather clumsy argument that ignores some specific clauses in international law, for instance, innocent passage in territorial seas, transit passage in straits used for international navigation, and sea-lane passage through archipelagoes.

    Also, the freedom of navigation clause in international law is neither unconditional nor beyond international regulations. Freedom of navigation can neither be above an affected coastal state’s laws and rights in the exclusive economic zones nor can it override other countries’ interests in the high seas.

    Washington’s recent provocative moves have infringed upon Beijing’s maritime sovereignty and security in the South China Sea, the United Nations Charter as well as international law. They were also intended to show the US’ military muscles on the pretext of practicing freedom of navigation.

    But China is not one to give in when it comes to its territorial, maritime and security interests, and the US is unlikely to succeed in its designs by instigating ASEAN countries to challenge China’s maritime rights in the South China Sea.

    The author is deputy director of the China Institute for Marine Affairs attached to the State Oceanic Administration.

    http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2015-11/17/content_22476316_2.htm


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